CURRENT GLOBAL POLITICAL SCENARIO

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Globally we face a multiple crisis of the economy, energy, food, and of the ecology of the planet. The world is slowly and gradually changing from a unipolar world to a multipolar world, where there are numerous centres of power. Even though it is a subtle process and the USA still holds a superior status, yet the process of change has already taken the first step.

Alternate centres of power have been developed in the world. The European Union, ASEAN- Association of South East Asian countries, SAARC- South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, BRICS- Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, are the organizations, which are slowly and gradually gaining more and more political influence in the international scenario. Even US President Barack Obama said that, “The country he inherits will no longer be able to call the shots alone, as its power over an increasingly Multi-polar world begins to wane”.

Common international problems like environment issues, economic downfalls and terrorism also add to the fact of reducing gaps between the international issues thus giving them a common ground. Global governance and multilateralism would also strengthen the concept of a multipolar world. Hence it can be concluded that even though the world today is not completely multi polar, it is not completely unipolar either.

Natural resources, particularly in the form of clean water and food are ranking candidates to end up fighting over. The First World War was about land grabs. World War Two was about the hearts and minds of different ideologies. The Global security is a delicate balance and it may not take much for it to descend into a global war in a world of 7.5 billion human beings.

The important role that international peacekeeping forces play is maintaining international peace and stability. UN and regional peacekeeping is a strategic priority for the United States. These efforts made by the U.S. with the international community, is helping to save lives and prevent the escalation of conflict. Not only do the UN and regional peacekeeping operations help prevent countries and regions from sliding into chaos, but their very presence reduces the likelihood that military will be called upon

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IMRAN KHAN ANNOUNCES ‘CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE’ MOVEMENT

Aamir Qureshi—AFP

CRICKETER-TURNED-POLITICIAN TELLS SUPPORTERS TO STOP PAYING TAXES AND UTILITY BILLS TO FORCE GOVERNMENT TO RESIGN.

Cricketer-turned-politician Imran Khan on Sunday announced that he was launching a civil disobedience movement to force the sitting prime minister to resign and call for fresh elections.

“I ask all Pakistani citizens not to pay tax, including general sales tax, or any utility bills, to protest the sitting Pakistani government that won through fraudulent elections in 2013,” he told thousands of his supporters in Islamabad on the third day of his party’s “long march.”

Khan accused the government, and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in particular, of bribing stakeholders during the 2013 elections to secure a landslide victory. He also warned the government to resign within two days or he would lose control of his followers.

“I promised the interior minister [Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan] that my workers would not cross into the ‘Red Zone’ but I can’t control you indefinitely,” he said. “After two days, my workers will no longer be in my control and can cross into the ‘Red Zone’ and occupy Parliament House and even drag [Prime Minister] Nawaz Sharif out,” he warned. Later, he said he would personally lead his followers into the ‘Red Zone’ if the Sharifs did not resign within two days. The ‘Red Zone’ in Islamabad is the location of several foreign embassies and offices and Parliament House. The interior minister said on Saturday that no action would be taken against the protesters unless they tried to enter the ‘Red Zone.’

The government has already announced intent to initiate dialogue with Khan, but he said during his speech that he would not settle for anything less than the resignation of Nawaz Sharif. “I know you [Sharif] will try to send people to convince me to back down,” he said. “Don’t waste my time.”

However, Khawaja Saad Rafique, railways minister, said the government was ready to accept any constitutional demand of Qadri and Khan. “I have requested them to meet us for talks, as this would be the most useful process to meet their demands,” he said.

Also addressing supporters on Sunday, Canadian-Pakistani cleric Tahir-ul-Qadri said that what he called a corrupt system of governance could not be changed without a revolution. “The country’s survival will be at stake if Nawaz Sharif and his cronies are allowed to rule the country,” Qadri said. “We don’t want mid-term elections … what we want is revolution,” he said, adding that corruption and plundering of the national wealth was rampant. “We will not allow this system to continue any more.”

Qadri has called for Sharif’s arrest over what he alleges was the murder of his supporters, and for the installation of an interim national government. The cleric, who late Saturday issued a 48-hour ultimatum to the government to accept his demands, said he would not be responsible for any repercussions if they were not met.

He said Sharif and his younger brother Shahbaz Sharif, who is chief minister of Punjab province, had no right to sit in government, their cabinets should be dissolved and they should be arrested on murder charges.

Analysts warned there was no quick solution to the impasse. “Apparently there are no signs that the government and the two parties are working towards a solution of the problem … both are sticking to their positions, leading to a deadlock,” said analyst Hasan Askari. “If political leaders fail to resolve this problem and violence starts, then the initiative will shift to the military—either to mediate the problem or see to it that the stalemate is resolved,” he said.

Senior politicians have intensified their efforts to avert a crisis, however. Siraj-ul-Haq, chief of the Jamaat-e-Islami party, met the opposition leader in the National Assembly, Syed Khursheed Shah, to discuss the situation. “The entire nation is upset over what is happening in Islamabad … we have to steer the country out of this crisis with a cool mind,” Haq told reporters after meeting Shah in Karachi. “We will not allow democracy to be derailed at any cost.”

Shah confirmed that the government had called an emergency meeting of the Parliamentary Committee to discuss the ongoing protests. “The Parliamentary Committee meeting tomorrow will decide how and which demands can be accepted to avoid any chaos in Islamabad,” he said.

Aitzaz Ahsan, leader of the Opposition in the Senate, said he believed Khan’s allegations were true, but disagreed with the route he had adopted to seek redress. “Even the Pakistan Peoples Party has raised objections to the massive rigging in the 2013 elections, and there is evidence for it, but the way Imran Khan has taken to the streets of Islamabad is not a solution,” he told Newsweek via phone. “It will only raise agitation in the country,” he added.

UN: ‘world stands disgraced’ as shelter for Gaza children is shelled by Israel

A Palestinian girl cries while receiving treatment for her injuries

A Palestinian girl cries while receiving treatment for her injuries caused by an Israeli tank shelling at a UN school in Jebaliya refugee camp, 30 July 2014

The UN agency for Palestinian refugees said the shelling of the school, being operated by the UN as a refugee camp, was a “serious violation of international law”

United Nations officials described the killing of sleeping children as a disgrace to the world and accused Israel of a serious violation of international law after a school in Gaza being used to shelter Palestinian families was shelled on Wednesday.

At least 15 people, mostly children and women, died when the school in Jabaliya refugee camp was hit by five shells during a night of relentless bombardment across Gaza. More than 100 people were injured.

Ban Ki-moon, the UN secretary general, said the attack was “outrageous and unjustifiable” and demanded “accountability and justice”. The UN said its officials had repeatedly given details of the school and its refugee population to Israel.

Fighting in Gaza continued through the day despite a four-hour humanitarian ceasefire called by Israel from 3pm. A crowded market in Shujai’iya was hit in the late afternoon, causing at least 17 deaths, including a journalist, and injuring about 200 people, according to Gaza health officials. They said people had ventured out to shop in the belief a ceasefire was in place. Witnesses said several shells struck as people were running away. Israel said rockets and mortar shells continued to be fired from Gaza.

At the UN school the first shell came just after the early morning call to prayer, when most of those taking shelter were asleep, crammed into classrooms with what few possessions they had managed to snatch as they fled their homes.

About 3,300 people have squashed into Jabaliya Elementary A&B Girls’ School since the Israeli military warned people to leave their homes and neighbourhoods or risk death under intense bombardment. Classroom number one, near the school’s entrance, had become home to about 40 people, mostly women and children.

As a shell blasted through the wall, showering occupants with shrapnel and spattering blood on walls and floors, Amna Zantit, 31, scrambled to gather up her three terrified infants in a panicked bid for the relative safety of the schoolyard. “Everyone was trying to escape,” she said, clutching her eight-month old baby tightly. Minutes later, a second shell slammed through the roof of the two-storey school. At least 15 people were killed and more than 100 injured. Most were women or children.

Pierre Krahenbuhl, commissioner-general of the UN agency for Palestinian refugees, UNRWA, said the shelling of the school was a “serious violation of international law by Israeli forces”.

Krahenbuhl said: “Last night, children were killed as they slept next to their parents on the floor of a classroom in a UN-designated shelter in Gaza. Children killed in their sleep; this is an affront to all of us, a source of universal shame. Today the world stands disgraced.”

Khalil al-Halabi, the UN official in charge of the schools in the area, was quickly on the scene. Bodies were littered over the classroom, and the badly injured lay in pools of blood amid the debris and rubble caused by the blast. “I was shaking,” he said. “It was very, very hard for me to see the blood and hear the children crying.”

By daylight, the detritus of people’s lives was visible among ruins of the classroom: a ball, a bucket, some blankets, tins of food, a pair of flip-flops. The corpses of donkeys, used to haul the meagre possessions of refugees to what they thought was safety, lay at the school’s entrance as two lads wearing Palestinian boy scout scarves collected human body parts for burial. Five of the injured were in a critical condition in hospital.

Halabi was facing impossible requests for advice from those who escaped the carnage. “These people are very angry. They evacuated their homes and came here for protection, not to be killed inside a UN shelter. Now they are asking me whether to stay or leave. They are very frightened. They don’t know what to do.”

The attack on the school was the sixth time that UNRWA premises have been hit since the war in Gaza began more than three weeks ago, the UN said.

Palestinians fled their homes after Israel warned that failure to do so would put their lives at risk. Those at the Jabaliya school were among more than 200,000 who have sought shelter at UN premises in the belief that families would be safe.

Analysis of evidence gathered at the site by UNRWA led to an initial assessment that Israeli artillery had hit the school, causing “multiple civilian deaths and injuries including of women and children and the UNRWA guard who was trying to protect the site. These are people who were instructed to leave their homes by the Israeli army.”

Krahenbuhl added: “Our staff, the very people leading the humanitarian response, are being killed. Our shelters are overflowing. Tens of thousands may soon be stranded in the streets of Gaza, without food, water and shelter if attacks on these areas continue.”

The Israel Defence Forces (IDF) said it was investigating the incident at the UN school. Initial inquiries showed that “Hamas militants fired mortar shells from the vicinity of the school, and [Israeli] soldiers responded by firing towards the origins of the fire”, a spokeswoman said.

A UN source said there was no evidence of militant activity inside the school.

The US, which has been at odds with Isarael’s prime minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, over efforts to secure a ceasefire, condemned the school shelling but did not specifically blame Israel.

The incident comes after an explosion at another UN school in Beit Hanoun last week as the playground was filled with families awaiting evacuation. Israel denied responsibility for the deaths, saying a single “errant” shell fired by its forces hit the school playground, which was empty at the time.

UNRWA has rejected the IDF’s account, saying an initial shell was followed by several others within minutes. Reporters who visited the school shortly afterwards said damage and debris was consistent with mortar rounds. UNRWA has found rockets at three of its schools in Gaza in the past three weeks, which it has swiftly condemned as “flagrant violation[s] of the neutrality of our premises”.

Israel says militants from Hamas and other organisations launch rockets from the vicinity of UNRWA properties.

The Israeli military said it had targeted more than 4,100 sites in Gaza since the start of the conflict on 8 July. The death toll in Gaza rose above 1,300 on Wednesday.

Three soldiers were killed in fighting around Khan Younis, bringing the total IDF death toll to 56. Three civilians have died in rocket attacks on Israel.

In an emotional statement, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, said the “destructive cycle of violence has caused untold suffering”.

He said: “You can’t look at the pictures coming from Gaza and Israel without your heart breaking. We must cry to God and beat down the doors of heaven and pray for peace and justice and security. Only a costly and open-hearted seeking of peace between Israeli and Palestinian can protect innocent people, their children and grandchildren, from ever worse violence.”

He called for a renewed “commitment to political dialogue in the wider search for peace and security for both Israeli and Palestinians”.

Support for the military operation among the Israeli public remained solid. A poll published by Tel Aviv university this week found 95% of Israeli Jews felt the offensive was justified. Only 4% believed too much force had been used.

PTI D – Chowk Jalsa – 11th May 2014

Kitnay Aadmi Thay Series – View 1

#SMQ Aj Tumhen Loadshedding Khtam Krne Ka Tarika Btata Hun…Sun’na Chahte Ho?…Jis Shehar Main Tum Ne Loadshedding Khtam Krni Hai Us Shehar Main Imran Khan Ko Jalsay Ki Daawat De Do #DChowk#11MayBlackDay #ISF

PTI Chairman Imran Khan and President Makhdoom Javed Hashmi

True patriots true leaders thumbs up for both Imran Khan & Makhdoom Javed Hashmi

Shahram Khan Tarakai (Health Minister KPK)

Azam Swati (President PTI KPK)

Ejaz Choudhry (PTI Punjab President)

APML Leader Sheikh Rasheed

Vice Chairman Shah Mahmood Qureshi

Shah Mahmood Qureshi addressing a mammoth crowd

PTI President Javed Hashmi addressing the crowd

Mian Mehmood ur Rasheed (Punjab Assembly opposition leader) addressing the crowd

Kitnay Aadmi thay – View 2

Chairman Imran Khan arrives at DChowk

And the crowd roars …

Jahangir Khan Tareen, Saifullah Khan Nyazi and Ejaz Choudhry

Sheikh Rasheed and Imran Khan sharing a joke.

The leaders out to save Pakistan

The victory punch !!! PMLN tried to sabotage the rally, but PTI’s workers are as Junooni as they come … they reached DChowk in time to show that Pakistanis still care about Justice

Jahangir Khan Tareen addressing the crowd at DChowk

Faisal Javed Khan celebrates the success of DChowk Jalsa with the crowd

Baghiii Makhdoom Javed Hashmi addressing the Tsunami


“Want to thank all r ppl for making. r jalsa a Tsunami jalsa. Also want to thank the media 4 their support and coverage.” Chairman Imran Khan

“Want to esp thank r youth & all pti workers who overcame all PMLN hurdles 2 come 2 the jalsa which is the start of r movement.” Imran Khan

“PMLN’s desperate efforts 2 stop PTI workers from reaching Islamabad shows their utter fear their massive electoral fraud will be exposed.” Imran Khan

PTI Till my Last Breath

Imran khan the great leader in the world

Sri Lanka offers $1 mln bonus to win T20

COLOMBO: The Sri Lankan team will be handed a million dollar bonus if they can shake off their reputation as chokers in the final of the World Twenty20 this weekend, the country’s cricket board announced Friday.

The day after the players won a rain-affected semi-final against the West Indies, Sri Lanka Cricket (SLC) said it would treble the money it had previously promised if they return home from Bangladesh with the trophy.

“The Executive Committee of SLC which met at an emergency meeting this morning decided to offer $ 1.5 million (including the original fee of $500,000) to the national team players in the event that they win the final,” the board said in a statement.

Sri Lanka — who will meet in Sunday’s final in Dhaka — were the beaten finalists last time round when they lost to the West Indies even though they were the tournament hosts.

They have also been beaten in the final of the last two 50 over World Cups, meaning they have not won a major trophy since their victory in the 1996 World Cup under skipper Arjuna Ranatunga.

 

History Of Hyderabad

Hyderabad, as the historic capital of Sindh, is the centre of all the provincial communications: road, rail, waterways and air. From the date of its foundation (1768), its manufactures-ornamented silks, silver- and gold-work, and lacquered ware-have been the chief in the province, and during its heyday had gained prizes at the industrial exhibitions of Europe. Some noteworthy antiquities are the tombs’ of the Kalhora and Talpur rulers.

The early Hindu settlement in Hyderabad

Under the rule of a Hindu ruler Neroon, (Nairon) this small fishing village thrived upon the banks of the mighty Indus river. A nearby hill tract called the Ganjo Takker or the bald (barren) hill, later attributed to as the Ganjo Range by British, protected the town raising it above the level of the water and safe from flood calamities that were regular in neighboring regions. The place came to be known as Neroon Kot. literally means the Fort of Neroon.

The Ganjo Takker ridge lay on a low limestone range and was used as a place of worship by the most adherent religious priests that blessed the city believing their meditation may result in excellent trade networks the city was developing at the time. But these very particular popularity traits in the areas of trade led the city vulnerable to outside sieges. Equipped mostly with farming equipment. In 711-716 the place was attacked by the Arab armies locals surrendered & Neroon was dethroned.

The Islamic conquest

Arab General Muhammad Bin Qasim leading his troops conquered the town in 711-712 AD. By the mid-712, Muslims armies had conquered much of the Sindh. However, later in an agreement with local Hindu authorities of the Sindh the Arab forces halted their advances and ceased military activities in Sindh in return of peaceful conduct affairs. After a brief rule of Arabs and Hindu leaders Sindh came under the rule of local Sumras, who were local Sindhis converted to Islam. Somra rule was followed by the Samma dynasty rule. By the end of Samma dynasty rule Sindh was occupied by invading Afghan warlords who lost the empire to Mughal Empire after a brief period of rule.

The Mughal empire thrived in the majority of the central parts of India and yet however never seated a ruler on the land of Neroon. The new Muslim invaders that had settled in the town mingled with the locals and wed Hindu girls and were pulled into the mysticism of the land. For decades Hyderabad did not seat a throne but things were to change when Nadir Shah Durrani or Iran invaded the Mughal capital in 1739.

All throughout the late 1600s, the Mughal dynasty had grown weary and weak in the regions of the Sindhu territory or Sindh and the governor Yar Muhammad Khan Kalhora became the de facto, virtual ruler of Sindh around 1701 CE. Muhammad Khan Kalhora belonged to the most affluent tribe in the region namely the Kalhora

The Kalhora dynasty

A sketch of the Pacco Qillo (c. 1845) drawn by Lieut. Edwards.The River Indus was changing course around 1757 due to Monsoons resulting into periodic floods and devastating the banks of the river. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhora was admired as the saintly ruler of Sindh at the time his capital Khudabad near Dadu was repeatedly flooded. Being fed up, he decided to move his capital to a better place.

The present day city of Hyderabad was founded in 1768 on the site of the ancient town of Neroon Kot by Ghulam Shah Kalhora of the Kalhora Dynasty it remained the chief town of Sindh until 1843, when, after the battle of Miani, it surrendered to the British, and the capital was transferred to Karachi.[4] It was named after the prophet Mohammed’s son-in-law, Ali, also known as Haidar.

Surviving as a small fishing village on the banks of River Indus, the city was suddenly called the heart of the Mehran. Thriving upon the fresh river water’s banks, Hyderabad was much loved by Ghulam Shah. He admired the city so much that in 1766, he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The massive half-a-square kilometer (about 36 acres) garrison was completed by 1768. Since then, it stands in place and is called the Pacco Qillo پڪو قلعو or the strong fort. The Kalhora rule lasted for two more decades until the demise of the great Ghulam Shah.

The Talpur dynasty of Sindh

An artist’s interpretation of his highness Mir Muhammad Naseer Khan Talpur, the last ruler of the fortified town.After the death of the great Kalhora, started the Talpur Rule. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro’s period is considered to be the Golden period in the history of Sindh. Later the Kalhora behaved as incompetent rulers and Sindh was ruined under Mian Abdun-Nabi Kalhoro.[3] Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his capital Khudabad, the land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. Great celebrations were held in 1792 CE to mark his formal entry in the Hyderabad fort. He made the Pacco Qillo his residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers was responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their kingdom. The four were called Chār Yār, Sindhi for four friends. The rulers of Sindh were named Ameers, Arabic for leaders.

It remained the capital of Sindh under the Talpur rulers who succeeded the Kalhoras till 1843, a rule lasting almost half-a-century when Talpurs faced a greater threat – the British. The last remaining rule of the Talpur kingdom was Mir Muhammad Naseer Khan Talpur (pictured right) was among the Talpur leaders to surrender to the British and was ported to Calcutta in what is now India. Many Talpur Mirs died there during many years of confinement in a small area near Calcutta. The bodies of the Talpur Mirs who died there were brought back to Hyderabad when all Mirs were allowed to return to Sindh. These Mirs were buried in the tombs located at the northern edge of the Ganjo Hill where the city was born from.

For these Mirs, they embraced the local culture and tried to proceed it with building literary institutions to restore the integrity of the Sindhi culture. In order to educate their people the mother of Mir Fateh Ali Khan, Bibi Khairunnissa, established Jamia al-Khairi or al-Khairi University.

The colonial rule

The history of the British occupation is taken mostly from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, written over a century ago during British rule.

Hyderabad at the turn of the last century.The British came face-to-face with the Talpurs at the battle of Miani on 17 February, 1843. It is said that even in rigor mortis the Ameers (Mirs) held their swords high fighting the British. The battle ended on 24 March where the Mirs lost and the city came into the hands of the British. The battle at Dabo landed an even greater part of Sindh in the laps of the British regime and the city surrendered to the British. Being the last stronghold in the way of the British, the city once conquered, completed the British Conquest of Sindh.

The crown of being a capital of the emirate of Sindh was then transferred to Karachi when the British general Sir Charles Napier conquered Sindh in 1843, mainly because the East India Company had headquarters in Karachi.

The residency, memorable for its defence by Sir James Outram against the Baluchis in 1843, which was situated 3 miles from Hyderabad, no longer exists. The municipality of Hyderabad was established in 1853.

In the Pacco Qillo the British kept the arsenal of the province, transferred from Karachi in 1861, and the palaces of the ex-Amirs of Sind that they had taken over. In 1857, when the Indian mutiny raged across the Indian sub-continent, the British held most of their regiments and ammunition in this city. The garrison at the fort composed of British and Native infantry, 2 batteries of artillery, and an ammunition column. The barracks were built in twelve blocks, with hospitals, bazar and various amenities to the north-west of the city.

The British demolished most of the buildings around the time of the mutiny to accommodate their troops and their military stores and fused the arsenal in the Pacco Qillo so that the people wouldn’t use that against them. Evidently the city received the very first blow to its glorious name. No longer were the roads washed with sandalwood perfume and rose-water.

The British however tallied the population statistics of the city in the years to come to keep an accurate record of the growth. Populations statistics dating back to 1872 compliment the tremendous growth the city achieved within a few decades. From 43,088 (1872), 48,153 (1881), 58,048 (1891) to 69,378 (1901), the city grew in thousands. At this point in time the Hinduism was the most dominant ethnic religion with 43,499 followers mostly linked to trade while 24,831 Muslims made up the largest ethnic minority. The 710 Christians were mostly new converts or the British soldiers in regiments around the town. The city ranked seventh in the Bombay Presidency in terms of population.

Also included in the census figures were income and expenditure, the average income during the decade ending 1901 was Rs. 2.2 lakhs. In 1903-4 the income and expenditure amounted to 2.7 and 2.8 lakhs respectively. The chief sources of income were octroi (Rs. 1,30,000) and water rate (Rs. 22,000); and the chief heads of expenditure were general administration and collection of taxes (Rs. 39,000), public safety (Rs. 7,400), water-supply and drainage (RS. 22,000), conservancy (Rs. 37,000), hospitals and dispensaries (Rs. 15,000), public works (Rs. 13,000), and education (Rs. 18,000). The income of the cantonment fund in 1903-4 was Rs. 43,000, and the expenditure Rs. 33,800.

The British devised a rail network throughout the western part of the then South Asia and purchased the private Scinde Railway (Sinds railway) to connect to the Kabul trade routes. The rail network would later be called the North-Western State Railway in 1886. Hyderabad was a major junction on the line linking distant trade locations like Lahore and still is to date.

To facilitate the expansion of the former capital, the British deployed water pumping technologies that would pump water from the river bank at Gidu Bandar whence from the water was deposited into large reservoirs situated about 500 yards from the river bank capable of holding over 1,000,000 gallons of water, surely a first when it comes to state-of-the-art constructions. Using a smart gravitational concept, the water was then supplied to the far most arid regions of the town

Independence and exodus of Sindhi Hindus from Sindh

Prior to the independence of Pakistanin 1947, Hyderabad had a large population of Hindu Sindhi who were mainly involved in trade and commerce. The community contributed significantly to the economy of Sindh. When independence of India occurred, the Hindu Sindhis expected to remain in Sindh. There was good communal relation between the Hindu and Muslims Sindhis; Hyderabad was seen as one of the cities least affected by Hindu-Muslim violence in British India. In other cities, the Hindus and Muslims were often not of the same ethnic group, however in Hyderabad, Sindhis, Muslim and Hindu alike, were the de-facto ethnic group.

This led to the peaceful communal relationship between the two religions in Hyderabad. But when waves of Mohajirs who escaped from anti-Muslim pograms in India started to pour into Hyderabad, violence erupted on the streets. The Hindu Sindhis were forced to flee leaving everything behind. Many Hindu Sindhis wanted to return to their native Sindh, when the violence had settled down, but it was not possible. The Mohajirs were given land in lieu of land they lost in India mostly in the town of Hirabad which belonged to the Hindus. While the population of the people grew with the migration in progress, the then-Government of Pakistan proposed the creation of two more towns, namely Latifabad (in honour of the famous poet of Sindh Shah Abdul Latif Bhita’i) and Qasimabad.

City declared capital again

With the influx of people from across the borders, the city saw its numbers increasing in population and was deemed to be the largest city according to population statistics at the time. Owing to the new-found glory, the city regained its title of being a capital of the Sindh province from 1947 to 1955 after which Karachi was made the capital of Sindh. Government institutions like the University of Sindh, moved its campuses from the city of Karachi to settle in the new capital in 1951 along the banks of Indus. During this time, Hyderabad was incorporated as a municipality in 1953.

Post-modern age

Hyderabad, twice the capital of Sindh and now the sixth largest city of Pakistan, is one of the oldest cities of the sub-continent. Hyderabad is a communication centre, connected by rail with Peshawar and Karachi. The third largest city of the province of Sindh, it has over 6 million people dwelling in it.

Diverse ethnic settlements

People migrated from across the border into Pakistan were all ethnically diverse. Migrants that settled in the province of Punjab were predominantly Punjabi speaking people and amalgamated well with the natives, whilst the people that came into the territories of the province of Sindh found no bond with the natives of Sindh, neither cultural nor racial, not even religious at times. Most Sindhi natives were Hindus. The new emigrants found difficult to mingle with the native neighbours in their newly allotted homes. And even decades after independence, the tensions seems to rise even steeper limits. The emigrants were given a new identity, a new name – Mohajirs.

Being a Muhajir and recognition

Towards the end of the 1970s and the beginning of 1980s, Karachi was a haven for Muslim refugees who fled anti-Muslim pogroms in India, known merely as Muhajirs, the word having decent from Hijrat, the exodus of early Muslims along with the prophet from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution due to religious beliefs. With Karachi overflowing with migrants, the influx reached the ends of the Hyderabad city at the south, where Latifabad is located.

The refugees that travelled across the border spoke Urdu and had cultural and social traditions different from that of the feudal counterparts the Sindhis adopted. With the adoption of Urdu as a National language, it was apparent that the Muhajirs were in the forefront of the struggle for Pakistani nationalism whilst their Sindhi, Punjabi and Pathan counterparts supported their own regional identities and found nationalism a fad excuse by the Muhajirs to gather more power out of the system.

The federal power, that rested with the Muhajirs, starting to gradually sift into the hands of more Punjabi ‘bureaucratic-military clique’. The Sindhis fought back to resurrect their dying culture and in 1972, according to the Sindh Act, imposed the teaching of Sindhi language compulsory in schools all over the province of Sindh. These actions led to the first violent clashes involving muhajir groups.

The ethnic riots

The 1980s saw a black period in the history of Hyderabad as riots erupted in the city between the two ethnic diversities in majority, the Sindhis and the Mohajirs. The city had never been the same again, forever divided by ethnicity, scared by racist hatred. This type of tension was never felt in the town; even when Hindus were part of the community in pre-independence Hyderabad.

In 1988, it was reported that the streets of Hyderabad were littered with bodies right from Hirabad to Latifabad. The riots claimed over 60 dead in just one day, and more than 250 deaths in this phase of rioting. In a backlash, more than 60 Sindhi speaking people were gunned down in Karachi.

The political hoopla over the domestic violence and civil killings provoked a massive police operation in the city with 2000 policemen surrounded the Pacco Qillo locality. The huge army of peacemakers could not curb the riots and had to be called back. There was only a trickle of internal migrations before the operation, but the operation triggered a mass exodus of population. The mohajirs migrated en masse from Qasimabad and the interior of Sindh into Latifabad. Similarly, the Sindhis people moved to Qasimabad from Hyderabad and Latifabad.

Hacker took over BBC server, tried to ‘sell’ access

London: A hacker secretly took over a computer server at the BBC, Britain’s public broadcaster, and then launched a Christmas Day campaign to convince other cyber criminals to pay him for access to the system.

While it is not known if the hacker found any buyers, the BBC’s security team responded to the issue on Saturday and believes it has secured the site, according to a person familiar with the cleanup effort.

A BBC spokesman declined to discuss the incident. “We do not comment on security issues,” he said.

We could not determine whether the hackers stole data or caused any damage in the attack, which compromised a server that manages an obscure password-protected website.

It was not clear how the BBC, the world’s oldest and largest broadcaster, uses that site, ftp.bbc.co.uk, though ftp systems are typically used to manage the transfer of large data files over the Internet.

The attack was first identified by Hold Security LLC, a cybersecurity firm in Milwaukee that monitors underground cyber-crime forums in search of stolen information.

The firm’s researchers observed a notorious Russian hacker known by the monikers “HASH” and “Rev0lver,” attempting to sell access to the BBC server on December 25, the company’s founder and chief information security officer, Alex Holden, told Reuters.

“HASH” sought to convince high-profile hackers that he had infiltrated the site by showing them files that could only be accessed by somebody who really controlled it, Holden said.

So far Hold Security researchers have found no evidence the conversations led to a deal or that data was stolen from the BBC, Holden said.

It is common for hackers to buy and sell access to compromised servers on underground forums.

Buyers view the access as a commodity that grants them the chance to further penetrate the victim organization. They can also use compromised servers to set up command-and-control centers for cyber-crime operations known as botnets, run spam campaigns or launch denial of service attacks to knock websites off line.

The BBC offer stands out because the media company is such a high-profile organization, Holden said. “It’s definitely a notch in someone’s belt.”

BBC has some 23,000 staff and is funded largely by license fees paid by every British household with a television.

Justin Clarke, a principal consultant for the cybersecurity firm Cylance Inc, said that while “HASH” was only offering access to an obscure ftp server, some buyers might see it as a stepping stone to more prized assets within the BBC.

“Accessing that server establishes a foothold within BBC’s network which may allow an attacker to pivot and gain further access to internal BBC resources,” he said.

Media companies, including the BBC, have repeatedly been targeted by the Syrian Electronic Army, which supports Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, and other hacker activist groups that deface websites and take over Twitter accounts.

Last January the New York Times reported that it had been repeatedly attacked over four months by Chinese hackers who obtained employees’ passwords.