Nelson Mandela A timeline of his life

July 18, 1918

Rolihlahla Mandela is born in Mvezo, a small village in the Transkei, a former British protectorate in the south. His father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, was a chief of the Thembu people, a subdivision of the Xhosa nation. He receives his English name, Nelson, from a teacher at age 7. During his life he is often referred to by his Xhosa clan name, Madiba, or as Tata which translates to ‘Father’.

1938

Mandela enters the University of Fort Hare. Two years later, he is expelled for participating in a student strike and moves to Johannesburg to avoid an arranged marriage.

1941

Mandela completes work for his bachelors’ degree by correspondence and studies law at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg.

1944

Mandela marries Evelyn Ntoko Mase. The couple go on to have four children, but because of his political activities, the marriage falls apart and they divorce in 1958.

That same year, Mandela, Oliver Tambo and Walter Sisulu help form the Youth League of the African National Congress. The league’s formation marks a shift toward a mass movement. The league’s manifesto irks white leaders for it’s black nationalalist language.

1948

The National Party comes into power in South Africa setting the stage for apartheid, a system of strict legal and racial segregation dominated by whites.

Mandela becomes national secretary of the ANC Youth League. In 1950, he becomes its president.

June 26, 1952

ANC’s Defiance Campaign opens. Mandela and 51 others break curfew regulations as their first act of defiance against apartheid.

In December Mandela and Tambo open a law practice in Johannesburg, marking the formation of the first black law partnership in the country.

Dec. 6, 1956

Mandela is arrested and charged high treason, along with 156 other political leaders who call for a nonracial state in South Africa.

June 1958

While battling charges of treason, Mandela weds or a second time. His wife, Winnie Nomzamo Madikizela, is a social worker.

March 21, 1960

Police open fire on a demonstration killing 69 black protesters in Sharpeville. In the aftermath South Africa declares a state of emergency the ANC is outlawed.

March 29, 1961

Mandela and his co-defendants case are acquitted after a four-year trial for treason. For the next 17 months, he lives as a fugitive and becomes commander of the ANC’s newly formed military wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation). But he never sees combat.

 

Aug. 5, 1962

Mandela is arrested after returning to South Africa from a trip abroad. At the time of his arrest, he had been living underground for 17 months. He is convicted of leaving the country illegally and incitement to strike, and is sentenced to five years in prison.

In November he is convicted and sentenced to five years in prison.

July 11, 1963

While Mandela is in prison, police raid the ANC’s underground headquarters at a farmhouse in Rivonia, outside Johannesburg, and seize documents outlining a planned guerrilla campaign.

June 12, 1964

Mandela and seven others are sentenced to life imprisonment. Mandela is taken to Robben Island Prison, where he will spend the next 18 years.

June 16, 1976

Thousands of students take to the streets of Soweto to oppose the use of Afrikaans as the language of instruction in black schools. The police fire on the protesters, setting off months of violence that will leave more than 570 people dead. The uprising is considered a turning point in the history of black resistance to apartheid.

June 13, 1980

An international “Free Mandela” campaign culminates with a call for his release by the UN Security Council.

April 1982

Mandela and Sisulu are transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison in Cape Town.

Jan. 31, 1985

South Africa’s President P.W. Botha offers to pardon Mandela if he renounces violence. Mandela refuses saying that the government must dismantle apartheid and grant full political rights to blacks.

July 18, 1988

Mandela’s 70th birthday is observed by anti-apartheid activists worldwide. Most public commemorations in South Africa are banned.

May 17, 1989

Mandela receives his bachelor of laws degree, which he earned through correspondence study with the University of South Africa.

In July President Botha invites Mandela to his official Cape Town residence for a 45-minute talk. Mandela’s comments on his conversation with Botha are broadcast on government-run radio and television.

Oct. 15, 1989

Sisulu and four other co-defendants of Mandela are freed unconditionally by F.W. de Klerk, who replaced Botha as president in August. Some see this as the precursor to Mandela’s own release.

Feb. 2, 1990

De Klerk legalizes the ANC and 60 other organizations, vows to free all political prisoners, ends restrictions on 374 individuals and places a moratorium on hangings.

Feb. 11, 1990

Mandela is freed after 27 years in prison at the age of 71.

 

In August ANC announces an end to its guerilla campaign against apartheid.

Dec. 20, 1991

Negotiations begin to prepare an interim constitution based on full political equality. President De Klerk and Mandela trade recriminations, with Mr. de Klerk criticising Mandela for not disbanding the ANC’s inactive guerrilla operation and Mandela saying that the president “has very little idea of what democracy is.”

Oct. 15, 1993

Mandela and de Klerk share the Nobel Peace Prize for working “to peacefully end apartheid” and push South Africa toward democracy.

April 27, 1994

South African apartheid formally ends when the ANC wins a majority of the vote and Mandela, 75, casts the first legal vote of his life in an all-race election and is elected president.

May 10, 1994

Mandela is inaugurated as president of a democratic South Africa.

March 19, 1996

He divorces Winnie Mandela.

July 18, 1998

Mandela marries for a third time at the age of 80.

May 1999

Mandela steps down after choosing not to run for re-election.

June 2, 2004

He announces that he will be stepping down from public life.

June 8, 2013

Mandela is hospitalized with a lung infection and stays there three months.

Dec. 5, 2013

Mandela dies “peacefully” at the age of 95 surrounded by family. President Jacob Zuma says, “Our nation has lost its greatest son” in a televised address.

KP to mourn DI Khan suicide attack for three days

PESHAWAR: The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa government Thursday announced three-day mourning in the province over the Dera Ismail suicide attack in which eight people, including law minister Israrullah Gandapur, were killed.

Moreover, the national flag would fly at half-mast on all the government buildings in the province during the course of the three-day mourning. Meanwhile, all the government activities and ceremonies were suspended in KP on account of Eidul Azha.

Earlier on Wednesday, at least eight people, including Gandapur, were killed when a suicide bomber blew himself up outside his residence in Dera Ismail Khan.

More than 30 people were wounded in the attack, including Gandapur’s elder brother.

Gandapur was a member of the ruling party in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, the Pakistan Tehrik-i-Insaf (PTI), a party led by former cricketer Imran Khan which favours peace talks with the Pakistani Taliban. He is the most senior member of the party to have been killed so far.

Separately, KP chief minister Pervez Khattak summoned an emergency meeting of the provincial cabinet at 4 pm today.

According to Sheraz Paracha, spokesman for the provincial chief minister, the meeting would review the overall security situation of the province.

Queen meets Britain’s royal baby for first time

LONDON,: Britain’s Queen Elizabeth II paid a visit Wednesday to Prince William and his wife Kate’s newborn son, her great-grandson who is third in line to her throne.

William and Kate were spending their first day at home at Kensington Palace with the unnamed baby boy, after showing him off to the world’s media outside their London hospital on Tuesday.

The 87-year-old monarch was seen arriving in a green Bentley after making the short trip from Buckingham Palace.

She had not visited the family in hospital and Wednesday’s visit to Kensington Palace marked her first meeting with her new heir, who is her third great-grandchild.

The queen had told a guest at a Buckingham Palace reception on Tuesday that she was “thrilled” about the latest addition to the royal family.

She had joked last week that she was impatient for Kate to give birth because she was due to head off on holiday.

“I would very much like it to arrive. I’m going on holiday soon,” she said.

The queen traditionally spends her summer holidays on her private Balmoral estate in Scotland.

The baby is third in line to inherit her throne, after her son Prince Charles and his son William.

There have not been three direct living heirs to the British throne since 1894.

Imran threatens ‘tsunami march to save democracy’

ISLAMABAD: Encouraged perhaps by the people’s response to the four-day sit-in by Tehrik-i-Minhajul Quran in Islamabad, Tehrik-i-Insaaf chief Imran Khan has threatened to launch a ‘tsunami march’ if a ‘neutral’ caretaker prime minister is not appointed before elections.

“The PTI will take out a huge tsunami march if a neutral umpire (caretaker prime minister) is not appointed. We will protest to save democratic process from a total disaster,” the cricketer-turned-politician said at a news conference on Saturday.

The PTI, he said, would go for its own protest plan, when required, stating that the party workers had already been told to remain prepared for his call.

Referring to the long march led by Dr Tahirul Qadri, Mr Khan said it was the first step towards a ‘true change’ and the next elections would herald a major change in Pakistan. “The status quo forces are now claiming that the long march has failed. Actually this was the first step towards change as thousands of people came out on roads to bring about a change,” he said.

Mr Khan, who had refused to join the TMQ’s sit-in at the last moment, on the one hand termed Dr Qadri’s march a positive step but on the other called it ‘unconstitutional’, saying the PTI did not participate in the long march because it always resisted ‘unconstitutional moves’.

He said the nation had already endured the PPP government for five years and now when polls were just a few weeks away the PPP would not be allowed to become ‘a political martyr’.

The declaration signed by the government with Dr Qadri, he said, had no legal or constitutional status and it was not binding on the rulers.

Responding to a question, Mr Khan did not rule out possibility of electoral alliance with Dr Qadri. However, he said that Dr Qadri was yet to decide about participation in elections.

Mr Khan said both the TMQ and PTI had similar demands and views regarding change, but their approaches were different. The PTI, he said, wanted change only through the ballot.

The PTI chief reiterated his demand that President Asif Ali Zardari immediately resign as under him holding of free, fair and transparent election was almost impossible.

He criticised the comments of PML-N president Nawaz Sharif that in case of President Zardari’s resignation, the PPP would elect a new president. After his resignation, Mr Khan said, Senate Chairman Nayyar Bokhari would become the acting president of the country.

The PTI chief also claimed that so far his party had not been consulted on the issue of the nomination of the caretaker prime minister.

It may be mentioned that PML-N’s Chaudhry Nisar had claimed that the PTI had even suggested its own names for the caretaker prime minister. Mr Khan said the federal and Punjab governments were dolling out huge funds in the name of development to its
lawmakers and even candidates.

He urged the Election Commission of Pakistan to take notice of this practice.

He urged the chief justice to take notice of mysterious death of NAB officer Kamran Faisal who was investigating the rental power project scam.

He said that Kamran had been murdered to send a message to others investigating sensitive cases

Flag meeting of Pak, Indian commanders held at LOC

File photo shows an Indian army soldier near the heavily militarised Line of Control (LoC), the border dividing the disputed Kashmir region between India and Pakistan.—Reuters Photo

ISLAMABAD: A flag meeting between the Pakistani and Indian army commanders was being held on Monday at the Line of Control (LOC) to discuss the recent violations of the ceasefire agreement, Daily Sitara Sindh News reported.

The Pakistani army brigadier in Poonch sector was also participating in the meeting.

The Pakistani commanders rejected the allegations against them levelled by their Indian counterparts.

The Indian commanders had accused their Pakistani counterparts for firing across the border, while the latter registered their own protest against the Indian violations of the ceasefire at LOC, according to the military sources.

The Pakistani army demanded that India must comply with the ceasefire agreement.

Earlier on Monday, the Indian Army chief, General Bikram Singh had threatened aggressive action against any provocation by the Pakistani army.

“The attack on January 8 was premeditated, a pre-planned activity. Such an operation requires planning, detailed reconnaissance,” General Bikram Singh told a news conference in New Delhi.

“I expect all my commanders at the Line of Control to be both aggressive and offensive in the face of provocation and fire,” he added.

Pakistan had also proposed a third party probe into the ceasefire violations at LOC recently but India rejected the proposal by saying that it did not wish to “internationalise” the issue.

Nation celebrates Quaid’s birth anniversary

KARACHI: The nation was celebrating on Tuesday the 136th birth anniversary of Pakistan’s founder Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Daily Sitara Sindh  reported.

A change of guard ceremony was held in Karachi where a fresh contingent of cadets from Pakistan Military Academy in Kakul took over the guard duty at the Quaid’s mausoleum. This was followed by the laying of floral wreaths by representatives of the armed services.

Sindh Governor Dr Ishratul Ibad Khan, Chief Minister Syed Qaim Ali Shah and  Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) chairman  Bilawal Bhutto-Zardari also visited the mausoleum after the change of guard.

The government has declared the day a national holiday.

Special ceremonies were scheduled to be held across the country to shed light on the Quaid’s struggle for the creation of Pakistan and to highlight his guiding principles of unity, faith and discipline.

A large number of people in Karachi also visit the mausoleum to pay tribute to the father of the nation.

President Asif Ali Zardari and Prime Minister Raja Pervez Ashraf in separate messages on the day have called for unity and following the principles of the founder leader.

Christmas preparations in Pakistan

This gallery comprises of images of Christmas celebrations from around different cities of Pakistan.

Hyderabad: Sain Bonaventure School students busy in their religious rituals at Saint Xavier Church in connection with Christmas celebration.

A young girl decorating the Thomson Cathedral Church.

Christian busy in religious rituals during Christmas eve at a church in Lahore.

Visitors look at model of Santa Claus displayed at a local hotel ahead of Christmas celebrations

Members of Christian community performing religious rituals as they celebrate Christmas at a local church in Faisalabad.

Christians busy in their religious rituals during special service in connection with upcoming Christmas celebrations at Cathedral Church.

Pakistani Christian youths celebrate ahead of Christmas as they stand atop a truck on their way to Karachi.